Temperature Sensor Types

Temperature, as a fundamental and important environmental parameter, is the temperature range inside which many chemical reactions and biological processes are optimized, and even the efficiency of some digital circuits is controlled by temperature. Therefore, the measurement of temperature performs a pivotal role in experimentation and engineering, and quite lots of strategies have been developed for its detection. Overall, temperature measurement and monitoring are key aspects of scientific analysis and engineering purposes.
Table of Contents

What is a temperature sensor?

Temperature Sensor Applications

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Thermocouples

Thermistors

Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Thermostat

Thermometers

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

How to decide on a temperature sensor?

How to maintain the temperature sensor?

Summary

What is a temperature sensor?

A temperature sensor is a temperature measuring gadget. It converts heat (temperature) into a readable kind such as an electrical signal such as present, voltage or resistance.
Measuring instrument close up in industry zone

Temperature Sensor Applications

Industrial

Medical subject

Environmental monitoring

Electronic tools

Food and beverage trade

Pharmaceutical trade

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature sensors take temperature readings by means of an electrical signal. They contain two metals that produce a change in voltage or resistance when the temperature modifications. Temperature sensor work is based on measuring the voltage throughout the terminals of a diode. As the voltage will increase, the temperature increases accordingly, at which point there is a decrease in voltage between the terminals and emitter of the transistor.
Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Contact Temperature Sensors

A contact temperature sensor is a sensor that must be in direct contact with the thing to be measured in order to measure its temperature. Contact temperature sensors utilize different bodily properties (e.g., resistance, voltage, present, etc.) for temperature measurement, and their modifications can replicate the temperature of the object to be measured.
Thermocouples

Thermocouple temperature sensors are mostly used in industrial, automotive, and on an everyday basis family functions. Because they are self-powered, they don’t require excitation, have quick response times, and might function over the widest temperature ranges (-328 to 3182 °F/-200 °C to 1750 °C). A thermocouple is a hoop of two different metallic wires wound together to produce a voltage change between the 2 metals that is proportional to the temperature change.
Thermocouples are made from numerous totally different materials, allowing temperature sensors to measure totally different temperature ranges and sensitivities. The mostly used thermocouple sensor is the K-type, and all different thermocouples are additionally designated using the letters (J, R, and T).
Thermistors

A thermistor, similar to an RTD, is a resistor whose resistance modifications with temperature. They are often manufactured from a polymer or ceramic lined with a glass surface, which is why they’re cheaper and fewer correct than RTDs. There are two main kinds of thermistors: positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and unfavorable temperature coefficient (NTC).
Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors are the commonest kind and are characterized by a lower in resistance as the temperature will increase. This is as a end result of at greater temperatures, the number of carriers (electrons and holes) in the semiconductor material will increase, which lowers the resistance. Glass-encapsulated thermistors have an operating vary of -72.four to 482 °F (-50 to 250 °C), and normal thermistors have an working vary as excessive as 302 °F (150 °C).
Apure PCT Thermocouple Temperature Transmitters with RTDs and thermocouples are field-installed temperature transformer units with a two-wire methodology with non-linear correction circuitry for direct measurement in industrial processes.
Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

A Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is a temperature sensor that operates on the precept of measuring temperature by using the property of resistance to vary with temperature. The resistance of a metallic conductor is proportional to its absolute temperature over a given temperature range. The corresponding temperature can be decided by measuring the resistance.RTDs are usually made of pure metals, particularly platinum, which has superb stability and linearity over a large temperature range.
RTD Configuration:
Two-wire: Used when lead lengths are brief sufficient that resistance doesn’t affect accuracy.
Three-wire: This configuration adds an RTD probe to hold the excitation current, thus providing a approach to eliminate line resistance.
Four-wire: This wire eliminates line resistance by combining separate drive and sense leads. เกจวัดแรงดันpressuregauge is probably the most correct configuration.
Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

AdvantagesDisadvantages

High precisionLow sensitivity

Linear outputHigher value

Long-term stabilityHigher necessities for current sources

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD Table

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Semiconductor-based temperature sensors are usually built-in into built-in circuits (ICs). Two similar diodes with temperature-sensitive voltages monitor temperature changes. IC sensors have a linear response, but they have the bottom temperature sensor accuracy. This is as a result of ICs have the slowest response over a slender temperature vary (- -70 °C to 150 °C).
There are two forms of IC:
Local Temperature Sensors: measure temperature using the bodily properties of transistors. They can use analog or digital outputs.
Remote digital temperature sensors: measure the temperature of an external transistor. The transistor is positioned away from the sensor chip.
Thermostat

A thermostat is a tool that automatically adjusts the temperature, usually primarily based on readings from temperature sensors (such as thermocouples, thermistors, or temperature-sensitive capacitors) that measure the temperature of the setting. When the measured temperature exceeds or falls below a set point, the thermostat prompts or shuts down heating or cooling equipment to maintain up the desired temperature.
There are many types of thermostats available, including knob-type, digital, programmable, and sensible thermostats to meet the needs of various customers.
Thermometers

Bimetallic thermometer is a mechanical device for measuring temperature that takes benefit of the truth that two different metals have different coefficients of thermal growth. When the temperature modifications, the 2 metals in the bimetal broaden or contract at different charges. Since the two metals are tightly certain collectively, this distinction causes the entire bimetal to bend. In thermometers, this bimetal is often made into a spiral or curved form. As the temperature modifications, the diploma of bimetal bending adjustments, and this change could be read instantly as a change in temperature.
Bimetal thermometers for temperature measurement

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-contact temperature sensors are used to measure the temperature of an object with out direct contact with the target surface. They depend on the thermal power radiated by the object to measure temperature, the commonest type being infrared (IR) temperature sensors.
Infrared temperature sensors: These sensors measure the depth of infrared radiation emitted by a goal object to determine its temperature. They are excellent for use when an object is shifting or the temperature is simply too high or too low, as they do not need to come back into contact with the object itself.
Thermal imaging cameras: Thermal imaging cameras are additionally infrared sensors that measure and produce a two-dimensional picture of the temperature distribution on the surface of an object.
Non-contact temperature sensors are utilized in all kinds of commercial and scientific applications, including temperature management of electronic devices, monitoring of chemical reactions, food high quality control, and medical diagnostics.
Non-contact infrared sensors measure the temperature of industrial instruments

How to decide on a temperature sensor?

Measuring vary: Different temperature sensors have different measuring ranges. First decide the temperature vary that must be measured, and select a sensor that can meet this vary.
Accuracy: Accuracy is one other necessary selection issue for temperature sensors. Different sensor types have totally different accuracies. Typically, RTDs and thermistors have higher accuracies, while thermocouples have lower accuracies.
Environment: Temperature sensors are affected by their operating environment, corresponding to humidity, corrosive substances, excessive stress and different environmental circumstances.
Application: Application eventualities require a quick response to temperature adjustments, so it is very important select a sensor with a fast response time.
Valve stem (sheath): Thermocouples and RTDs are supplied with 316 stainless-steel rods and internal wiring coated with powdered ceramic. Screw head kinds are available in two stem varieties: spring-loaded and welded. The spring-loaded stem is mounted to the bottom of the thermocouple sleeve for maximum thermal sensitivity. Welded stems are excellent for liquid functions.
How to maintain the temperature sensor?

Periodic Sensor Cleaning

Periodic calibration

Check electrical connections

Avoid extreme environments

Record and analyze data

Summary

Which temperature sensor to make use of is dependent upon your application and business, if you have any questions about temperature sensors or want temperature transmitter, be at liberty to contact Apure skilled and technical group to provide a solution. We also provide devices for water quality evaluation, flow meters, stage measurement, pressure measurement, ozone mills and temperature controller.
Extended studying:
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What Is Municipal Water?

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Temperature, as a basic and important environmental parameter, is the temperature range within which many chemical reactions and organic processes are optimized, and even the performance of some electronic circuits is controlled by temperature. Therefore, the measurement of temperature plays a pivotal function in experimentation and engineering, and a variety of strategies have been developed for its detection. Overall, temperature measurement and monitoring are key aspects of scientific research and engineering functions.
Table of Contents

What is a temperature sensor?

Temperature Sensor Applications

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Thermocouples

Thermistors

Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Thermostat

Thermometers

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

How to determine on a temperature sensor?

How to maintain up the temperature sensor?

Summary

What is a temperature sensor?

A temperature sensor is a temperature measuring system. It converts warmth (temperature) into a readable type similar to an electrical signal corresponding to current, voltage or resistance.
Measuring instrument close up in industry zone

Temperature Sensor Applications

Industrial

Medical area

Environmental monitoring

Electronic gear

Food and beverage trade

Pharmaceutical trade

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature sensors take temperature readings by the use of an electrical signal. They include two metals that produce a change in voltage or resistance when the temperature adjustments. Temperature sensor work is based on measuring the voltage throughout the terminals of a diode. As the voltage increases, the temperature will increase accordingly, at which level there is a decrease in voltage between the terminals and emitter of the transistor.
Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Contact Temperature Sensors

A contact temperature sensor is a sensor that should be in direct contact with the object to be measured in order to measure its temperature. Contact temperature sensors make the most of totally different physical properties (e.g., resistance, voltage, current, and so forth.) for temperature measurement, and their adjustments can replicate the temperature of the item to be measured.
Thermocouples

Thermocouple temperature sensors are mostly used in industrial, automotive, and everyday family purposes. Because they’re self-powered, they do not require excitation, have fast response occasions, and can operate over the widest temperature ranges (-328 to 3182 °F/-200 °C to 1750 °C). A thermocouple is a ring of two different metallic wires wound collectively to produce a voltage change between the 2 metals that’s proportional to the temperature change.
Thermocouples are produced from numerous totally different materials, allowing temperature sensors to measure completely different temperature ranges and sensitivities. The mostly used thermocouple sensor is the K-type, and all different thermocouples are also designated utilizing the letters (J, R, and T).
Thermistors

A thermistor, much like an RTD, is a resistor whose resistance adjustments with temperature. They are often made of a polymer or ceramic lined with a glass floor, which is why they’re cheaper and less correct than RTDs. There are two main types of thermistors: positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and unfavorable temperature coefficient (NTC).
Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors are the most typical kind and are characterised by a lower in resistance because the temperature will increase. This is because at larger temperatures, the number of carriers (electrons and holes) in the semiconductor materials will increase, which lowers the resistance. Glass-encapsulated thermistors have an working vary of -72.four to 482 °F (-50 to 250 °C), and commonplace thermistors have an working range as excessive as 302 °F (150 °C).
Apure PCT Thermocouple Temperature Transmitters with RTDs and thermocouples are field-installed temperature transformer units with a two-wire methodology with non-linear correction circuitry for direct measurement in industrial processes.
Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

A Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is a temperature sensor that operates on the precept of measuring temperature by utilizing the property of resistance to change with temperature. The resistance of a metallic conductor is proportional to its absolute temperature over a given temperature range. The corresponding temperature could be determined by measuring the resistance.RTDs are usually made from pure metals, particularly platinum, which has excellent stability and linearity over a big temperature range.
RTD Configuration:
Two-wire: Used when lead lengths are brief sufficient that resistance does not affect accuracy.
Three-wire: This configuration adds an RTD probe to hold the excitation current, thus providing a method to eliminate line resistance.
Four-wire: This wire eliminates line resistance by combining separate pressure and sense leads. This is essentially the most correct configuration.
Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

AdvantagesDisadvantages

High precisionLow sensitivity

Linear outputHigher worth

Long-term stabilityHigher necessities for current sources

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD Table

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Semiconductor-based temperature sensors are often built-in into integrated circuits (ICs). Two identical diodes with temperature-sensitive voltages monitor temperature modifications. IC sensors have a linear response, however they’ve the lowest temperature sensor accuracy. This is because ICs have the slowest response over a slender temperature range (- -70 °C to a hundred and fifty °C).
There are two forms of IC:
Local Temperature Sensors: measure temperature using the bodily properties of transistors. They can use analog or digital outputs.
Remote digital temperature sensors: measure the temperature of an external transistor. The transistor is situated away from the sensor chip.
Thermostat

A thermostat is a tool that automatically adjusts the temperature, often based on readings from temperature sensors (such as thermocouples, thermistors, or temperature-sensitive capacitors) that measure the temperature of the environment. When the measured temperature exceeds or falls below a set level, the thermostat prompts or shuts down heating or cooling tools to take care of the desired temperature.
There are many kinds of thermostats out there, including knob-type, digital, programmable, and good thermostats to fulfill the wants of various customers.
Thermometers

Bimetallic thermometer is a mechanical system for measuring temperature that takes benefit of the truth that two totally different metals have totally different coefficients of thermal enlargement. When the temperature changes, the 2 metals within the bimetal broaden or contract at different charges. Since the two metals are tightly certain collectively, this distinction causes the entire bimetal to bend. In thermometers, this bimetal is normally made into a spiral or curved shape. As the temperature adjustments, the diploma of bimetal bending adjustments, and this alteration could be learn directly as a change in temperature.
Bimetal thermometers for temperature measurement

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-contact temperature sensors are used to measure the temperature of an object without direct contact with the goal floor. They depend on the thermal vitality radiated by the item to measure temperature, the most common sort being infrared (IR) temperature sensors.
Infrared temperature sensors: These sensors measure the intensity of infrared radiation emitted by a goal object to determine its temperature. They are perfect for use when an object is transferring or the temperature is simply too excessive or too low, as they don’t need to come back into contact with the thing itself.
Thermal imaging cameras: Thermal imaging cameras are also infrared sensors that measure and produce a two-dimensional image of the temperature distribution on the floor of an object.
Non-contact temperature sensors are utilized in a extensive variety of commercial and scientific applications, including temperature management of electronic gadgets, monitoring of chemical reactions, food quality control, and medical diagnostics.
Non-contact infrared sensors measure the temperature of industrial devices

How to choose on a temperature sensor?

Measuring range: Different temperature sensors have different measuring ranges. First determine the temperature vary that must be measured, and choose a sensor that may meet this range.
Accuracy: Accuracy is one other essential selection issue for temperature sensors. Different sensor sorts have different accuracies. Typically, RTDs and thermistors have greater accuracies, while thermocouples have decrease accuracies.
Environment: Temperature sensors are affected by their working setting, similar to humidity, corrosive substances, high strain and different environmental circumstances.
Application: Application scenarios require a fast response to temperature adjustments, so it is necessary to choose a sensor with a quick response time.
Valve stem (sheath): Thermocouples and RTDs are provided with 316 stainless steel rods and inner wiring coated with powdered ceramic. Screw head types are available in two stem types: spring-loaded and welded. The spring-loaded stem is mounted to the underside of the thermocouple sleeve for max thermal sensitivity. Welded stems are excellent for liquid functions.
How to take care of the temperature sensor?

Periodic Sensor Cleaning

Periodic calibration

Check electrical connections

Avoid extreme environments

Record and analyze information

Summary

Which temperature sensor to make use of is decided by your software and trade, if you have any questions about temperature sensors or need temperature transmitter, be happy to contact Apure skilled and technical team to supply an answer. We additionally provide instruments for water quality analysis, move meters, level measurement, stress measurement, ozone turbines and temperature controller.
Extended studying:
Dissolved Oxygen Probe How It Works?

Surface Water vs Groundwater

What Is Municipal Water?

Types of stage measurement transmitters

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