Temperature Sensor Types

Temperature, as a fundamental and critical environmental parameter, is the temperature range within which many chemical reactions and biological processes are optimized, and even the performance of some electronic circuits is managed by temperature. Therefore, the measurement of temperature performs a pivotal role in experimentation and engineering, and a wide range of methods have been developed for its detection. Overall, temperature measurement and monitoring are key features of scientific research and engineering applications.
Table of Contents

What is a temperature sensor?

Temperature Sensor Applications

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Thermocouples

Thermistors

Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Thermostat

Thermometers

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

How to choose a temperature sensor?

How to hold up the temperature sensor?

Summary

What is a temperature sensor?

A temperature sensor is a temperature measuring device. It converts warmth (temperature) into a readable kind such as an electrical sign corresponding to present, voltage or resistance.
Measuring instrument close up in trade zone

Temperature Sensor Applications

Industrial

Medical area

Environmental monitoring

Electronic equipment

Food and beverage trade

Pharmaceutical trade

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature sensors take temperature readings by means of an electrical signal. They comprise two metals that produce a change in voltage or resistance when the temperature changes. Temperature sensor work relies on measuring the voltage across the terminals of a diode. As the voltage will increase, the temperature will increase accordingly, at which point there is a lower in voltage between the terminals and emitter of the transistor.
Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Contact Temperature Sensors

A contact temperature sensor is a sensor that must be in direct contact with the object to be measured to find a way to measure its temperature. Contact temperature sensors utilize different physical properties (e.g., resistance, voltage, current, and so on.) for temperature measurement, and their changes can replicate the temperature of the object to be measured.
Thermocouples

Thermocouple temperature sensors are mostly used in industrial, automotive, and everyday household purposes. Because they are self-powered, they do not require excitation, have quick response occasions, and may operate over the widest temperature ranges (-328 to 3182 °F/-200 °C to 1750 °C). A thermocouple is a hoop of two different metallic wires wound together to supply a voltage change between the two metals that is proportional to the temperature change.
Thermocouples are created from a selection of totally different materials, allowing temperature sensors to measure different temperature ranges and sensitivities. The mostly used thermocouple sensor is the K-type, and all different thermocouples are also designated utilizing the letters (J, R, and T).
Thermistors

A thermistor, much like an RTD, is a resistor whose resistance adjustments with temperature. They are usually made from a polymer or ceramic covered with a glass surface, which is why they’re cheaper and less correct than RTDs. There are two main forms of thermistors: positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and adverse temperature coefficient (NTC).
Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors are the most typical type and are characterised by a decrease in resistance as the temperature will increase. This is because at higher temperatures, the number of carriers (electrons and holes) in the semiconductor material increases, which lowers the resistance. Glass-encapsulated thermistors have an operating range of -72.four to 482 °F (-50 to 250 °C), and commonplace thermistors have an working range as high as 302 °F (150 °C).
Apure PCT Thermocouple Temperature Transmitters with RTDs and thermocouples are field-installed temperature transformer units with a two-wire methodology with non-linear correction circuitry for direct measurement in industrial processes.
Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

A Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is a temperature sensor that operates on the principle of measuring temperature by using the property of resistance to vary with temperature. The resistance of a metallic conductor is proportional to its absolute temperature over a given temperature vary. The corresponding temperature may be decided by measuring the resistance.RTDs are often made of pure metals, particularly platinum, which has superb stability and linearity over a large temperature vary.
RTD Configuration:
Two-wire: Used when lead lengths are quick sufficient that resistance does not have an result on accuracy.
Three-wire: This configuration adds an RTD probe to hold the excitation current, thus providing a way to get rid of line resistance.
Four-wire: This wire eliminates line resistance by combining separate pressure and sense leads. This is essentially the most accurate configuration.
Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

AdvantagesDisadvantages

High precisionLow sensitivity

Linear outputHigher value

Long-term stabilityHigher requirements for present sources

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD Table

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Semiconductor-based temperature sensors are usually integrated into integrated circuits (ICs). Two identical diodes with temperature-sensitive voltages monitor temperature modifications. IC sensors have a linear response, but they’ve the lowest temperature sensor accuracy. This is as a result of ICs have the slowest response over a slender temperature range (- -70 °C to a hundred and fifty °C).
There are two types of IC:
Local Temperature Sensors: measure temperature utilizing the physical properties of transistors. They can use analog or digital outputs.
Remote digital temperature sensors: measure the temperature of an exterior transistor. The transistor is positioned away from the sensor chip.
Thermostat

A thermostat is a tool that mechanically adjusts the temperature, often primarily based on readings from temperature sensors (such as thermocouples, thermistors, or temperature-sensitive capacitors) that measure the temperature of the setting. When the measured temperature exceeds or falls below a set level, the thermostat prompts or shuts down heating or cooling tools to hold up the desired temperature.
There are many types of thermostats available, together with knob-type, digital, programmable, and sensible thermostats to fulfill the wants of different users.
Thermometers

Bimetallic thermometer is a mechanical device for measuring temperature that takes benefit of the reality that two totally different metals have totally different coefficients of thermal expansion. When the temperature modifications, the two metals within the bimetal increase or contract at completely different charges. Since the 2 metals are tightly certain collectively, this distinction causes the complete bimetal to bend. In thermometers, this bimetal is normally made into a spiral or curved shape. As the temperature changes, the diploma of bimetal bending changes, and this change may be read directly as a change in temperature.
Bimetal thermometers for temperature measurement

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-contact temperature sensors are used to measure the temperature of an object without direct contact with the target floor. They rely on the thermal power radiated by the thing to measure temperature, the most common sort being infrared (IR) temperature sensors.
Infrared temperature sensors: These sensors measure the depth of infrared radiation emitted by a target object to discover out its temperature. They are excellent for use when an object is transferring or the temperature is just too high or too low, as they do not want to come back into contact with the object itself.
Thermal imaging cameras: Thermal imaging cameras are also infrared sensors that measure and produce a two-dimensional picture of the temperature distribution on the surface of an object.
Non-contact temperature sensors are utilized in a extensive variety of business and scientific purposes, together with temperature control of electronic gadgets, monitoring of chemical reactions, food quality management, and medical diagnostics.
Non-contact infrared sensors measure the temperature of commercial devices

How to choose a temperature sensor?

Measuring vary: Different temperature sensors have completely different measuring ranges. First decide the temperature range that needs to be measured, and choose a sensor that may meet this vary.
Accuracy: Accuracy is another essential selection issue for temperature sensors. Different sensor types have completely different accuracies. Typically, RTDs and thermistors have larger accuracies, while thermocouples have lower accuracies.
Environment: Temperature sensors are affected by their working surroundings, corresponding to humidity, corrosive substances, high pressure and different environmental situations.
Application: Application eventualities require a fast response to temperature changes, so you will need to select a sensor with a fast response time.
Valve stem (sheath): Thermocouples and RTDs are equipped with 316 chrome steel rods and inside wiring coated with powdered ceramic. Screw head styles are available in two stem types: spring-loaded and welded. The spring-loaded stem is mounted to the underside of the thermocouple sleeve for max thermal sensitivity. Welded stems are good for liquid purposes.
How to take care of the temperature sensor?

Periodic Sensor Cleaning

Periodic calibration

Check electrical connections

Avoid extreme environments

Record and analyze data

Summary

Which temperature sensor to make use of is decided by your utility and business, when you have any questions about temperature sensors or need temperature transmitter, be at liberty to contact Apure skilled and technical staff to supply an answer. We also offer devices for water high quality analysis, circulate meters, level measurement, pressure measurement, ozone mills and temperature controller.
Extended studying:
Dissolved Oxygen Probe How It Works?

Surface Water vs Groundwater

What Is Municipal Water?

Types of degree measurement transmitters
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Temperature, as a fundamental and important environmental parameter, is the temperature vary inside which many chemical reactions and organic processes are optimized, and even the performance of some electronic circuits is controlled by temperature. Therefore, the measurement of temperature plays a pivotal position in experimentation and engineering, and quite so much of strategies have been developed for its detection. Overall, temperature measurement and monitoring are key aspects of scientific analysis and engineering applications.
Table of Contents

What is a temperature sensor?

Temperature Sensor Applications

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Thermocouples

Thermistors

Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Thermostat

Thermometers

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

How to choose a temperature sensor?

How to maintain the temperature sensor?

Summary

What is a temperature sensor?

A temperature sensor is a temperature measuring gadget. It converts warmth (temperature) into a readable kind corresponding to an electrical sign corresponding to current, voltage or resistance.
Measuring instrument close up in industry zone

Temperature Sensor Applications

Industrial

Medical subject

Environmental monitoring

Electronic equipment

Food and beverage business

Pharmaceutical business

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature sensors take temperature readings by the use of an electrical signal. They comprise two metals that produce a change in voltage or resistance when the temperature changes. Temperature sensor work is based on measuring the voltage across the terminals of a diode. As the voltage increases, the temperature increases accordingly, at which point there’s a decrease in voltage between the terminals and emitter of the transistor.
Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Contact Temperature Sensors

A contact temperature sensor is a sensor that should be in direct contact with the item to be measured so as to measure its temperature. Contact temperature sensors utilize totally different physical properties (e.g., resistance, voltage, present, and so on.) for temperature measurement, and their changes can reflect the temperature of the thing to be measured.
Thermocouples

Thermocouple temperature sensors are most commonly utilized in industrial, automotive, and on an everyday basis household functions. Because they’re self-powered, they do not require excitation, have quick response instances, and may operate over the widest temperature ranges (-328 to 3182 °F/-200 °C to 1750 °C). A thermocouple is a hoop of two completely different metallic wires wound together to produce a voltage change between the two metals that’s proportional to the temperature change.
Thermocouples are made from a selection of totally different materials, permitting temperature sensors to measure completely different temperature ranges and sensitivities. The mostly used thermocouple sensor is the K-type, and all different thermocouples are also designated utilizing the letters (J, R, and T).
Thermistors

A thermistor, just like an RTD, is a resistor whose resistance modifications with temperature. They are often made from a polymer or ceramic lined with a glass floor, which is why they are cheaper and less correct than RTDs. There are two primary types of thermistors: positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and unfavorable temperature coefficient (NTC).
Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors are the most typical kind and are characterized by a decrease in resistance because the temperature increases. This is because at greater temperatures, the variety of carriers (electrons and holes) within the semiconductor material increases, which lowers the resistance. Glass-encapsulated thermistors have an working range of -72.four to 482 °F (-50 to 250 °C), and commonplace thermistors have an working range as excessive as 302 °F (150 °C).
Apure PCT Thermocouple Temperature Transmitters with RTDs and thermocouples are field-installed temperature transformer models with a two-wire methodology with non-linear correction circuitry for direct measurement in industrial processes.
Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

A Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is a temperature sensor that operates on the precept of measuring temperature by using the property of resistance to change with temperature. The resistance of a metallic conductor is proportional to its absolute temperature over a given temperature range. The corresponding temperature may be determined by measuring the resistance.RTDs are usually made from pure metals, especially platinum, which has excellent stability and linearity over a large temperature range.
RTD Configuration:
Two-wire: Used when lead lengths are brief enough that resistance does not affect accuracy.
Three-wire: This configuration provides an RTD probe to hold the excitation present, thus providing a method to eliminate line resistance.
Four-wire: This wire eliminates line resistance by combining separate force and sense leads. This is the most correct configuration.
Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

AdvantagesDisadvantages

High precisionLow sensitivity

Linear outputHigher value

Long-term stabilityHigher necessities for current sources

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD Table

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Semiconductor-based temperature sensors are usually integrated into built-in circuits (ICs). Two similar diodes with temperature-sensitive voltages monitor temperature modifications. IC sensors have a linear response, but they’ve the bottom temperature sensor accuracy. This is as a end result of ICs have the slowest response over a narrow temperature vary (- -70 °C to a hundred and fifty °C).
There are two types of IC:
Local Temperature Sensors: measure temperature utilizing the bodily properties of transistors. They can use analog or digital outputs.
Remote digital temperature sensors: measure the temperature of an exterior transistor. The transistor is located away from the sensor chip.
Thermostat

A thermostat is a tool that routinely adjusts the temperature, often primarily based on readings from temperature sensors (such as thermocouples, thermistors, or temperature-sensitive capacitors) that measure the temperature of the environment. When the measured temperature exceeds or falls beneath a set level, the thermostat activates or shuts down heating or cooling gear to maintain the desired temperature.
There are many forms of thermostats available, together with knob-type, digital, programmable, and good thermostats to fulfill the needs of various customers.
Thermometers

Bimetallic thermometer is a mechanical system for measuring temperature that takes advantage of the reality that two different metals have completely different coefficients of thermal expansion. When the temperature changes, the 2 metals in the bimetal broaden or contract at completely different charges. Since the two metals are tightly certain collectively, this difference causes the whole bimetal to bend. In thermometers, this bimetal is often made right into a spiral or curved form. As the temperature modifications, the diploma of bimetal bending modifications, and this change could be learn instantly as a change in temperature.
Bimetal thermometers for temperature measurement

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-contact temperature sensors are used to measure the temperature of an object with out direct contact with the target floor. They depend on the thermal power radiated by the thing to measure temperature, the most common kind being infrared (IR) temperature sensors.
Infrared temperature sensors: These sensors measure the depth of infrared radiation emitted by a target object to determine its temperature. They are excellent for use when an object is transferring or the temperature is simply too excessive or too low, as they don’t want to return into contact with the object itself.
Thermal imaging cameras: Thermal imaging cameras are additionally infrared sensors that measure and produce a two-dimensional image of the temperature distribution on the surface of an object.
Non-contact temperature sensors are used in a extensive variety of commercial and scientific functions, together with temperature control of digital gadgets, monitoring of chemical reactions, food high quality control, and medical diagnostics.
Non-contact infrared sensors measure the temperature of business instruments

How to choose a temperature sensor?

Measuring vary: เครื่องมือวัดpressure have different measuring ranges. First determine the temperature range that must be measured, and choose a sensor that can meet this vary.
Accuracy: Accuracy is another important selection issue for temperature sensors. Different sensor sorts have totally different accuracies. Typically, RTDs and thermistors have greater accuracies, whereas thermocouples have lower accuracies.
Environment: Temperature sensors are affected by their working surroundings, similar to humidity, corrosive substances, high strain and different environmental conditions.
Application: Application situations require a fast response to temperature adjustments, so it is very important select a sensor with a quick response time.
Valve stem (sheath): Thermocouples and RTDs are supplied with 316 stainless steel rods and inner wiring coated with powdered ceramic. Screw head types can be found in two stem sorts: spring-loaded and welded. The spring-loaded stem is mounted to the bottom of the thermocouple sleeve for max thermal sensitivity. Welded stems are perfect for liquid applications.
How to maintain the temperature sensor?

Periodic Sensor Cleaning

Periodic calibration

Check electrical connections

Avoid extreme environments

Record and analyze knowledge

Summary

Which temperature sensor to make use of depends on your utility and industry, in case you have any questions about temperature sensors or want temperature transmitter, feel free to contact Apure skilled and technical team to supply an answer. We additionally supply devices for water quality analysis, circulate meters, level measurement, stress measurement, ozone generators and temperature controller.
Extended studying:
Dissolved Oxygen Probe How It Works?

Surface Water vs Groundwater

What Is Municipal Water?

Types of degree measurement transmitters

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